Categories
Awards

2017 APF/APA Group Psychology and Psychotherapy Grants

Jean Keim, Ph.D.
Jean Keim, Ph.D.

The board of APA’s Division 49 – Society for Group Psychology and Psychotherapy is pleased to announce TWELVE opportunities for recognition and financial support for students and professionals engaged in activities related to group psychology and group psychotherapy. Please see below for award descriptions, eligibility requirements, and application instructions. Please distribute widely. Questions about an award should be directed to the associated contact info/email address for each specific award.

  1. THE STUDENT AWARD FOR OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO DIVERSITY IN GROUP PSYCHOLOGY OR GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY
  2. STUDENT TRAVEL AWARDS FOR APA CONVENTION
  3. STUDENT POSTER AWARDS FOR APA CONVENTION
  4. RICHARD MORELAND DISSERTATION OF THE YEAR AWARD
  5. THE ARTHUR TEICHER GROUP PSYCHOLOGIST OF THE YEAR AWARD
  6. AWARD FOR OUTSTANDING PROFESSIONAL CONTRIBUTION TO DIVERSITY IN GROUP PSYCHOLOGY OR GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY
  7. EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING OF GROUP DYNAMICS AWARD
  8. EXCELLENCE IN GROUP PRACTICE AWARD
  9. DIVISION 49 RESEARCH GRANT
  10. APF/DIVISION 49 GRANT 1
  11. APF/DIVISION 49 GRANT 2
  12. APF/DIVISION 49 GRANT 3

  1. The Student Award for Outstanding Contribution to Diversity in Group Psychology

The Student Award for Outstanding Professional Contribution to Diversity in Group Psychology or Group Psychotherapy seeks to recognize excellence in group psychology practice, research, service, and/or advocacy with a focus on promoting understanding and respect for diversity.  All who are members of Division 49 (or whose application for membership is currently pending) are eligible. Nominations may come from self or others. The award will be presented at the annual American Psychological Association Convention. A $500.00 cash award and plaque will be presented to the award winner. Nominations materials should include and be limited to the following:

  • Names, phone numbers, program and institutional affiliations, APA divisional membership of yourself (the endorser) and of your nominee.
  • A brief letter highlighting your nominee’s contributions in promoting understanding and respect for diversity in group psychology practice, research, service and/or advocacy.
  • The nominee’s vita.
  • All materials should be submitted via a zipped/compressed folder in one email with the following subject line: [Candidate’s First and Last Name] –Application for Group Dynamics Teaching Award. For example, MARGARET WISE BROWN – APPLICATION FOR DIVERSITY AWARD.zip.

All submissions must be received by May 1, 2017 to be considered. Send to division49awards@gmail.com

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  1. Student Travel Awards for APA Convention

The Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy is offering student travel awards for the 2016 APA Convention: What are the details? Six (6) awards of $500 each are available. Awards should be used in support of travel to the 2017 APA Convention.

What are the requirements? Applicants must show an interest in group psychology and/or group psychotherapy. Applicants must not yet have completed their terminal degree.

Applicants must be Student Affiliate Members of the Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy. Award winners must assist the Student Committee in promoting Division 49 at two (2) or more division programs at the APA Convention (to be scheduled with Student Committee chairs). Award winners are encouraged (not required) to attend the Division 49 Social in order to be recognized and congratulated!

What is the application process? Submit a brief (500 words or less) statement addressing your interest in and/or goals related to group psychology and/or group psychotherapy, and how attendance at the 2016 APA Convention would benefit your development as a group psychologist or psychotherapist. Include a current CV. E-mail application materials to keri.frantell@gmail.com by May 1, 2017.

*Please note that checks will be processed after required paperwork is completed at the 2017 APA Convention and submitted to APA Headquarters; Awards may be subject to appropriate taxes.

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  1. Student Poster Awards for APA Convention

Students poster awards are available for students 1) who have been selected to present posters through Division 49 at the Annual APA Convention, 2) are currently in a mental health professional preparation training program, and 3) are members of Division 49 (or whose application for membership is currently pending). Awards of $300, $200 and $100, respectively. Awards are presented for the best posters that contribute to the mission and goals of the society, quality of the poster and materials and its presentation. Students will be contacted by a Division 49 representative and asked to submit an electronic version of their poster by June 1, 2017 to be considered for an award.

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  1. Richard Moreland Dissertation of the Year Award

This award honors a recent dissertation by someone whose research on small groups is especially promising. The winner is announced and the prize is conferred at the annual American Psychological Association Convention. Included in the award are $1,000, a plaque, and a three-year membership in the division. Only dissertations that were completed during the prior calendar year are eligible, but the research described in those dissertations can explore any group phenomenon, using any methodology to investigate any type of group. A committee reviews all the abstracts and selects three finalists, who then submit complete copies of their dissertations for the committee’s evaluation.

A five-page, double-spaced abstract of your work should be sent to Richard Moreland, PhD, by Dec. 31 (every year).

Richard Moreland, PhD
Department of Psychology
3103 Sennott Square
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA. 15260

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  1. The Arthur Teicher Group Psychologist of the Year Award

We are now seeking nominations for the Arthur Teicher Group Psychologist of the Year Award. This award honors a distinguished group psychologist whose theory, research, or practice has made some important contributions to our knowledge of group behavior. Nominations need to be received no later than May 1, 2017. Please collate nomination materials into one PDF document titled with nominee’s name and award name. For example, “Linda Jackson ARTHUR TEICHER AWARD.pdf”.

Send materials to: division49awards@gmail.com

Criteria: The nominee is expected to embody and model the ideals and mission of the Society through exemplary contributions in teaching, or research and scholarly activity, and service

Procedure:

  1. The Awards Committee will solicit nominations from the Division 49 Executive Board, and the membership of the Division.
  2. Credentials to be submitted to the Committee include letter(s) of nomination and support, and CV.
  3. The Committee will review the materials, and make a recommendation to the Board

  1. The Award for Outstanding Professional Contribution to Diversity in Group Psychology or Group Psychotherapy 

The Award for Outstanding Professional Contribution to Diversity in Group Psychology or Group Psychotherapy started in 2012 and is awarded every year. This award honors psychologists who have made significant contributions to group psychology practice, research, service, and/or mentoring, with a focus on promoting understanding and respect for diversity.  All who are members of Division 49 (or whose application for membership is currently pending) are eligible. Nominations may come from self or others. The award will be presented at the annual American Psychological Association Convention. A $1,000.00 cash award and plaque will be presented to the award winner. Nominations materials should include and be limited to the following:

  • Names, phone numbers, program and institutional affiliations, APA divisional membership of yourself (the endorser) and of your nominee.
  • A brief letter highlighting the nominee’s contributions in promoting understanding and respect for diversity in group psychology practice, research, service and/or mentoring.
  • The nominee’s vita.
  • All materials should be submitted via a zipped/compressed folder in one email with the following subject line: [Candidate’s First and Last Name] –Application for Group Dynamics Teaching Award. For example, ERICA BLADE – APPLICATION FOR DIVERSITY AWARD.zip.

Self-nominations are accepted. Nominations are reviewed by the Diversity Committee and voted on by the board of directors at its midwinter meeting. All submissions must be received by May 1, 2017 to be considered.

Send materials to: division49awards@gmail.com

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  1. Excellence in Teaching of Group Dynamics Award

This award is granted to a teaching professional (post-graduate) who has demonstrated excellence in teaching or mentoring in the area of group psychology or group psychotherapy at the undergraduate or graduate level. This award seeks to honor those who have developed and implemented a particularly innovative and/or effective teaching or mentoring approach related to instruction in group dynamics. All who are members of Division 49 (or whose application for membership is currently pending) are eligible. Nominations may come from self or others. The award will be presented at the annual American Psychological Association Convention. A $1,000.00 cash award and plaque will be presented to the award winner. The awardee also will have a chance to present her or his work related to teaching group dynamics to a national audience. Applicants are encouraged to submit the following materials on order to be considered for this award:

  • Written description (no more than 2 pages) of a specific exercise, assignment, or teaching or mentoring strategy that highlights your qualifications for this award
  • Evidence of teaching innovation and/or effectiveness (e.g., informal and/or formal teaching evaluations; other data gathered from students; peer evaluations) (maximum 5 pages)
  • Copy of current CV
  • A letter from a psychologist (or other qualified colleague) who can speak to the qualifications of the nominee in light of the award criteria
  • Cover sheet that includes:
    • Nominee’s name, address, telephone number and email address.
    • Name and type of teaching institution (e.g., doctoral program, master’s program, 4-year college) and discipline (e.g. counseling psychology, social psychology, clinical psychology, etc.)
    • Nominator’s name, address, telephone number and email address.
    • Name and address of who should be informed if the nominee wins the Group Dynamics Teaching Award (e.g., department head, supervisor, etc.)
  • All materials should be submitted via a zipped/compressed folder in one email with the following subject line: [Candidate’s First and Last Name] –Application for Group Dynamics Teaching Award. For example, JHUMPA LAHIRI – APPLICATION FOR GROUP DYNAMICS TEACHING AWARD.zip.

All submissions must be received by May 1, 2017 to be considered. Send to: divisio49awards@gmail.com

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  1. Excellence in Group Practice Award

This award recognizes outstanding contributions to the practice of group psychotherapy and/or other applied group interventions. This award honors any individual, agency, or organization that provides exemplary group services to the community. The award will be presented at the annual American Psychological Association Convention. A $1,000.00 cash award and plaque will be presented to the award winner. The awardee also will have a chance to present her or his work related to teaching group dynamics to a national audience. All who are members of Division 49 (or whose application for membership is currently pending) are eligible. Nominations may come from self or others. Nominees will be considered who can demonstrate a commitment to utilizing group interventions. This may include using group in multiple or diverse ways in order to provide services. Furthermore, nominees should demonstrate commitment to the practice of group psychotherapy in at least two of the following ways:

  • Commitment to advancing the field of group psychotherapy through publications, national or regional presentations, or developing creative partnerships;
  • Use of research to inform the practice of group psychotherapy or other group interventions;
  • Demonstrated evidence of group practice that supports diverse, disenfranchised, disempowered, and/or oppressed groups;
  • Creative application of groups including different types of groups, modalities, environments, populations (e.g., using short-term groups for a disaster response or groups for conflict resolution/reconciliation);
  • Providing supervision and training;
  • Utilizes best practices in implementation of group services (e.g. http://www.agpa.org/home/practice-resources/practice-guidelines-for-group-psychotherapy or http://www.asgw.org/pdf/Best_Practices.pdf).

Nomination Process:

To submit a nomination, the following is required:

  • A letter from the nominee that describes and illustrates the individual/agency/organization’s commitment to group intervention (e.g., nature of the nominee’s commitment, commitment to supervision and training, use of research or best practices to enhance group services, etc.). The letter should be no more than three pages long.
  • Three letters of support from individuals familiar with the nominee’s group psychotherapy practices (these letters can be from current or past employees, a collaborating partner or agency, or members of a Board of Directors, etc.).
  • Copy of current CV.
  • All materials should be submitted via a zipped/compressed folder in one email with the following subject line: [Candidate’s First and Last Name] – Application for Group Dynamics Teaching Award. For example, LUKE SKYWALKER – APPLICATION FOR PRACTICE AWARD.zip.

All submissions must be received by May 1, 2017 to be considered.

Send materials to: division49awards@gmail.com

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  1. Division 49 Research Grant

Funds are available from the SOCIETY OF GROUP PSYCHOLOGY AND GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY/DIVISION 49 to support research on any aspect of Group Psychology or Group Psychotherapy.

One $4,000 grant may be awarded each year, depending on the importance of the research to the field and the experience of the investigative team. Grant funding can be used to support the basic costs of research, e.g., supplies, research equipment, photocopying, postage, computer services, statistical consultation, research assistant salaries; investigator salaries, and/or travel expenses are not funded. (Equipment purchased for use with a research project is to be donated to an institution at the completion of the project.) Grant monies are awarded with an expected completion of the project in one year as follows: Ninety percent upon grant approval and the final ten percent upon receipt of a post project report.

The first author of a Research Grant Application must be a Member or Affiliate of the SOCIETY OF GROUP PSYCHOLOGY AND GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY

The deadline for receipt of research grant application materials is May 1, 2017.

Send materials to: division49awards@gmail.com

Applications must include:

  1. Completed application form (see below) (initial signature page);
  2. 1-page summary of research project;
  3. Detailed description of research project which covers the 8 areas mentioned below;
  4. Budget information;
  5. Information about the investigators, including curriculum vitae of principal investigator;
  6. Approval form from the appropriate local ethics review board;
  7. Sample of participant consent form;
  8. Optional additional materials, e.g., letters of support, reprints.

Applications will be reviewed by researchers who are experts in the field of group psychotherapy research.  Applications are given scores from 1 – 5 on each of the following areas:

  1. Importance of the topic (from “not at all important” to “very important”).  Successful applications will make a compelling and logical argument for why the completion of the research project would move the field of group psychotherapy research forward and/or improve public health.
  2. Coverage of the literature (rated from “poor” to “excellent”).  Successful applications will provide an organized, focused review of the literature on which the study is built, illustrating the contribution that the new study would provide.
  3. Appropriateness of measures (psychometric quality, relevance; rated from “inappropriate” to “appropriate”).  Successful applications will use instruments that measure the constructs in question and will include information on the reliability and validity of the measures for the target population.
  4. Appropriateness of statistical approach (relevant analyses, power considerations, etc.; rated from “inappropriate” to “appropriate”).  Successful applications will include a complete and appropriate analytic plan.

The project summaries should be detailed enough to allow reviewers to accurately rate each of these four categories.  Ten Page limit excluding references, tables and figures

Conditions Governing the Award: Submitting a final report no later than three months after completion of the project;

Should funding of the project be approved, acknowledgment of the Society’s support is to be included in all publications derived from the award.  Additionally, grant recipients are encouraged to submit reports to Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice for consideration of publication.

Project Title:

Total Funds Requested:

Principal Investigator:

Current Position(s) of Principal Investigator:

Email:

Mailing Address of Principal Investigator:

Telephone Number of Principal Investigator:

Co-Investigator(s):

Institutional Location of Project:

Name and Address of Financial Officer who will administer the funds:

 I accept the conditions governing the award of a research grant as determined by the Group Foundation for Advancing Mental Health.

 Date:

Signature of Principal Investigator:

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American Psychological Foundation Division 49 Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy (3 Grants)

  1. APF/DIVISION 49 GRANT 1 Funding Specifics

Ø  The Division 49 Group Psychology Grant ($2,000) supports innovative group psychology research focused toward groups in applied settings.

  • The Division 49 Group Psychotherapy Grant ($2,000) supports innovative group psychotherapy research applied to small groups in a naturalistic setting.

Applicants may apply for both grants, but must submit separate proposals for each.

APF does not allow institutional indirect costs or overhead costs. Applicants may use grant monies for direct administrative costs of their proposed project.

 Eligibility Requirements

Applicants must:

  • Be affiliated with nonprofit charitable, educational, and scientific institutions, or governmental entities operating exclusively for charitable and educational purposes.
  • Have a demonstrated knowledge of group psychology and/or group psychotherapy principles.
  • IRB approval must be received from host institution before funding can be awarded if human participants are involved.
  • Preference will be given to early career psychologists (10 years or less post-doctoral).
  • Preference will be given to proposals which integrate group psychotherapy and group psychology into the proposed research.Evaluation CriteriaProposals will be evaluated on:
  • Quality, viability, and potential impact of the proposed project
  • Originality, innovation and contribution to the field of group psychology and/or group psychotherapy.
  • Applicant’s demonstrated competence and capability to execute the proposed work
  • Clear and comprehensive methodology.
  • Criticality of funding for execution of work (particularly if part of a larger funded effort).Proposal RequirementsPlease include the following sections in your proposal (no more than 5 pages; 1 inch margins, no smaller than 11 point font):

Questions about this program should be directed to Erin Carney, Program Officer, at ecarney@apa.org.

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  1. APF/DIVISION 49 GRANT 2 Funding Specifics
  • The Division 49 Group Psychotherapy Grant ($2,000) supports innovative group psychotherapy research applied to small groups in a naturalistic setting.

 Applicants may apply for both grants, but must submit separate proposals for each 

APF does not allow institutional indirect costs or overhead costs. Applicants may use grant monies for direct administrative costs of their proposed project.

 Eligibility Requirements

Applicants must:

  • Be affiliated with nonprofit charitable, educational, and scientific institutions, or governmental entities operating exclusively for charitable and educational purposes.
  • Have a demonstrated knowledge of group psychology and/or group psychotherapy principles.
  • IRB approval must be received from host institution before funding can be awarded if human participants are involved.
  • Preference will be given to early career psychologists (10 years or less post-doctoral).
  • Preference will be given to proposals which integrate group psychotherapy and group psychology into the proposed research.Evaluation CriteriaProposals will be evaluated on:
  • Quality, viability, and potential impact of the proposed project
  • Originality, innovation and contribution to the field of group psychology and/or group psychotherapy.
  • Applicant’s demonstrated competence and capability to execute the proposed work
  • Clear and comprehensive methodology.
  • Criticality of funding for execution of work (particularly if part of a larger funded effort).Proposal RequirementsPlease include the following sections in your proposal (no more than 5 pages; 1 inch margins, no smaller than 11 point font):

Questions about this program should be directed to Erin Carney, Program Officer, at ecarney@apa.org.

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  1. APF/DIVISION 49 GRANT 3 – TRAVEL Funding Specifics

The funding is available up to $1,500 (with receipts required for reimbursement). Division 49 Group Psychology and/or Group Psychotherapy Travel Grant is available to a graduate student or member of Division 49 for travel associated with meeting with a mentor/researcher to improving their teaching, supervision, clinical work, or research.

Eligibility Requirements

Applicants must:

  • Be affiliated with nonprofit charitable, educational, and scientific institutions, or governmental entities operating exclusively for charitable and educational purposes.
  • Be a graduate student or member of APA Division 49
  • Have a demonstrated knowledge of group psychology or group psychotherapy principles.Proposal Requirements
  • Current CV
  • Two letters of recommendation
  • Two page essay demonstrating an active interest and plan for improving their teaching, supervision, clinical work or research in group psychology and/or group psychotherapy
  • Detailed budget and justificationSubmission Process and Deadline:Submit a completed application online by June 1, 2017.http://www.apa.org/apf/funding/div-49-travel.aspx
Categories
Awards

2017 APF/APA Travel Grants

Jean Keim, Ph.D.
Jean Keim, Ph.D.

Up to $2,000 available for research/travel related to group psychology and group psychotherapy

 Request for Proposals for the 2017 APF Division 49 Group Psychology/Group Psychotherapy Grants and The Division 49 Group Psychology/Group Psychotherapy Travel Grants  seeks to support research and scholarly works that further the advancement of group psychology and group psychotherapy:

APF/Division 49 Group Psychology Grant ($2,000): supports innovative group psychology research focused toward groups in applied settings.

APF/Division 49 Group Psychotherapy Grant ($2,000): supports innovative group psychotherapy research applied to small groups in a naturalistic setting.

APF/Division 49 Travel Grant ($1,000): available to a graduate student or member of Div. 49 for travel associated with meeting with a mentor/researcher to improving their teaching, supervision, clinical work or research.

Click here to review the APF Division 49 Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy Grants flyer

Click here to review the APF Division 49 Group Psychology and/or Group Psychotherapy Travel Grant flyer

Please see our website for more information:

http://www.apa.org/apf/funding/div-49-psychology.aspx

http://www.apa.org/apf/funding/div-49-psychotherapy.aspx

http://www.apa.org/apf/funding/div-49-travel.aspx

The deadline for applications is June 1, 2017.  Please feel free to distribute this call as you see fit.  Thank you for your time.

 

Colleen Harwood

Program Coordinator

American Psychological Foundation

750 First Street, NE

Washington, DC 20002

P: (202) 336-5843 I F: (202) 336-5812 I charwood@apa.org

www.americanpsychologicalfoundation.org

APF: Transforming the future through psychology

 

 

Categories
Other Information

Call for Nominations

Joe Miles, Ph.D.

Call for Nominations for Journal Editor of Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice

The Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy (Division 49) of the American Psychological Association has opened nominations for the Editorship of the Division’s journal, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice for the term of January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2023.

Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice (GDN) is a peer-reviewed, quarterly journal that publishes original empirical articles, theoretical analyses, literature reviews, and brief reports dealing with basic and applied topics in the field of group research and application. The editors construe the phrase group dynamics in the broadest sense—the scientific study of all aspects of groups—and publish work by investigators in such fields as psychology, psychiatry, sociology, education, communication, and business.

The journal publishes articles examining groups in a range of contexts, including ad hoc groups in experimental settings, therapy groups, naturally forming friendship groups and cliques, organizational units, self-help groups, and learning groups. Theoretically driven empirical studies of hypotheses that have implications for understanding and improving groups in organizational, educational, and therapeutic settings are particularly encouraged.

Candidates should be available to start receiving manuscripts as the Incoming Editor on January 1, 2018 to prepare for issues published in 2019. David K. Marcus, Ph.D. is the incumbent editor, whose term ends on December 31, 2018.

Please note that Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy encourages participation by members of underrepresented groups in the publication process and would particularly welcome such nominees. Self-nominations are also encouraged.

Joseph R. Miles, Ph.D., will chair the search. To nominate a candidate (or yourself), please send the candidate’s name and contact information to Joseph Miles at joemiles@utk.edu. He will follow up with all nominees to assess interest and request additional materials.

Deadline for accepting nominations is June 1, 2017, when reviews will begin.

Categories
Other Information

Canadian Group Psychotherapy Update

Kasra Khorsani, M.D.
Kasra Khorsani, M.D.

I am happy to report that we accomplished many of our goals that we set out in the last year, and we are looking forward to building on our accomplishments. I like to thank our board of directors and our committee members for all their hard work.

Our main aim continues to be building our membership services, and grow our membership. We hope you will be as committed as the Board and I are to establishing a sustainable association of group therapists in Canada.

We did not reach our membership goal of 150 by October 2016 but we slightly increased our membership over last year having around 115 members compared to 110 from the year before.

We need your continued help to grow our membership.

Invite a new member to CGPA. Please keep in mind for every new member that you invite you get a discount towards your next year’s membership fee.

We accomplished the following in the last year:

  • Our pilot mentor ship program was a success thanks to Dr. Samantha Surkis leadership. We are trying to make the association attractive for the students and therapists who are just starting out. We hope to attract more mentors and mentees to this initiative. Please consider being a mentor or suggest to someone you know to take advantage of being a mentee. This membership benefit in my opinion is priceless for both the mentor and the mentee.
  • Our Annual conference in Toronto on Oct 2016 was a success and we had an overwhelming positive response from most attendees. The three-day format worked well and we hope to repeat that in the coming years though we will stay flexible in the design of our annual meetings to adapt to the various locations and needs of the communities we hope to attract. The next Annual Meeting will be in Halifax in October of 2017 and in Winnipeg in October of 2018.
  • The Sunday night educational seminars continue to be popular. The teleconference is from 8-9 pm EST on the first Sunday of each month. It is offered free of charge to members and non-members. Please invite a colleague or a friend interested in group work to register and benefit from the experience and wisdom of senior group therapist from across Canada.  This we hope will show case group therapy and introduce CGPA to the therapist communities across Canada.
  • Financially we will post a gain in 2016, that is mostly due to the generous contribution of our patron members and the success of Multicenter Experiential Groups in May of 2016.  We will be repeating both those initiatives this year.  Please consider being a patron member. Please consider getting involved in the 2017 May 13 ETG’s by either volunteering to run an experiential group or support hosting an ETG in your location, Spread the word in your communities about this event. We Hope to run groups in Toronto, Winnipeg, Halifax, Calgary and Vancouver. We are always open to have more sites around the country join in this one day ETG initiative.
  • Our Training committee under the leadership of Aida Cabecinha will continue to work on developing Web based Group Therapy Modules. That committee is also actively exploring the idea of developing a program for group therapy certification.
  • And finally, we hope to upgrade our website in the coming year. So, that it can be more accessible and efficient and useful for our members.

Please Give us feedback.  Let us know how we can all support each other to have a more vital and fulfilling association. Consider getting involved by volunteering to join our committees or the Board of Directors.

Best wishes,

Kasra khorasani MD

Toronto, ON

Kasra.khorasani@utoronto.ca

416.627.4590

Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if you want to send me any information.

Alternatively, you can send any material to

First Stage Enterprises

admin@cgpa.ca

416.426.7229

Fax: 416.426.728

Categories
Other Information

Special Issue – International Journal of Group Psychotherapy

Call for Submissions

Group Dynamics and Race

The International Journal of Group Psychotherapy will publish a special issue on group dynamics and race in 2018. We are interested in receiving original theoretical, clinical, or research-based articles, including literature reviews, relevant to the problems of, and innovative solutions to, race relations.

Below are examples of interest for this special issue:

  • Racial bias, implicit or explicit, systemic or individual, and the facilitation of group psychotherapy in various settings.
  • Scholarly articles relevant to race that address institutional group phenomena, such as (but not limited to) business, government, education, and criminal justice.
  • Implications for our profession, such as preparation for clinical intervention in a racially mixed society.
  • Current challenges, domestic or international, such as denial of historical facts or promotion of racial myths by advocacy groups.
  • Analysis of the role of social media in drawing the isolate into online group identity based on racial bias.

We seek articles showing knowledge of group theory, clinical psychology, education, sociology, etc., with professional emphasis on the impact of racism on society. Potential contributors are invited to submit proposals by April 1, 2017, via email in abstract or summary form (500-700 words) to the editor, Dominick Grundy, Ph.D., grundyd4@earthlink.net. Those invited will be expected to submit within four months of notification. Manuscripts are submitted via Scholar One and peer-reviewed.

Articles are normally 25 double-spaced pages (including tables and references) and Brief Reports under 10 pages. Authors are held responsible for following APA style. For more information about the submission process, go online to the International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, then select the publisher’s website (Taylor & Francis online). For Instructions for Authors, use this link:  http://www.agpa.org/home/practice-resources/international-journal-of-group-psychotherapy#tab1.  Send email queries to the editor, Dominick Grundy, Ph.D., grundyd4@earthlink.net.

Categories
Committee Reports

Finance Report

Amy Nitza, PhD
Amy Nitza, Ph.D.

2016 End of the Year Financials 

Dr. Nitza reviewed end of year financials; The division spent significantly less than we thought we would spend in 2016 and had more income than we thought we would. Part of the reason that we had extra money was that we did not spend some of the money we said we would spend (we didn’t give money for several awards). Dr. Parks pointed out that we are a profitable division because of the journal (even though membership is low).

Dr. Nitza noted we have an investment account with about $47,000 in it as a safety net. It earns $5 a quarter. There might be better ways that money could be handled. Dr. Ribeiro asked if there is a problem with not spending the money we budgeted for last year. Dr. Nitza said no, we do not have to zero out. Dr. Dennis Kivlighan said there are three things that need to be discussed together: the structure of the Board, the budget, awards. One of the reasons that the money didn’t get spent was that there was no one responsible. One of the reasons for the new board structure was so that there would be certain people who would “own” certain aspects of what we do, like the awards.

Categories
Committee Reports

Council of Representatives Report

Sally Barlow, Ph.D.

The Council of Representatives met in Washington DC February 24-25th, 2017. A lot of business was conducted, some of which I cannot report on because it occurred in Executive Session. Sorry about that. Wish I could. But we have been harshly warned by our legal counsel not to divulge anything. Perhaps I will be able to do this later.

Of interest was a vote on apportionment—long history of this squabbling that has gone back and forth. You can refer to pdf below for status. A very nice thing that happened from the floor of Council was that we all agreed to make sure all the geographic locations (e.g. Virgin Islands) weren’t stripped of their votes. I have also attached the minutes from the meeting if you are interested. Most of you are no doubt up to your eyeballs in work: serving the public, teaching the next generation of group clinicians, running groups etc. The happiest thing I must report is that the CRSPPP petition for specialty status just ended its comment period. The petition itself can be read at  http://apaoutside.apa.org/EducCSS/public/  along with the almost 50 pages of comments, which are primarily quite supportive. We have Nina Brown to thank for this tremendous effort: THANK YOU NINA!!

Although group is recognized by the American Board of Professional Psychology as a specialty it has yet to be recognized by CRSPPP—the committee on recognition of specialties and proficiencies in professional psychology. In related action, the PTSD guidelines were voted upon.  It was an almost 2-hour debate. APA staff in charge of the PTSD guidelines apparently have been working on this document for 4 1/2 years to compete with psychiatry guidelines. The committee (staff and psychologists) were given the charge to follow the guidelines from the Institute of Medicine (IOM).  I believe that is what set the agenda here–so that only PTSD research under-girded by RCTs was the norm. It is no wonder CBT and its offshoots along with medication won this horse race. Comments from the floor ranged from defensive (the APA staff essentially said, “If we want to be a player here with psychiatry we need to get these guidelines out now”; representatives from division 39, psychoanalysis, claimed unfair treatment of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic TX,) to accurate (the president of the Women’s division strongly suggested that decontextualizing PTSD was dangerous to those who suffered from it,) to the idiotic (sorry about casting aspersions here–but I am always fascinated when psychologists in love with RCTs and meta-analyses as the only viable evidence base stand at the mic and spout effect sizes etc.–overlooking the important contributions from qualitative research, and misunderstanding how RCTs are based on drug trials that simply do not translate to humans. Here is what I said at the mic (you can only talk 2 minutes):

“I am Sally Barlow from Division 49 Group Psychology and Group psychotherapy. I am against these PTSD guidelines in their current form, extensive as they are.  Because the freeway was closed from Park City to SLC due to an oil tanker fire, I spent an extra 8 hours at the airport re-reading the 2,000-page document and accompanying 1,000 no and yes comments–the no’s outweighing the yes’s by 30-1. The document never mentions treatment delivery modalities, only treatment types such as CBT. In particular, I am persuaded by Dr. Moench’s comments on page 1649 who suggests this document goes against expert international guidelines for PTSD. Further, Les Greene and associates from science to service task force of American Group psychotherapy Association on page 1678 suggest the guidelines fail to sufficiently delineate differential and unique effects of different treatment modalities such as individual vs. group treatment. In clearly growing data bases for group investigations, group treatment is often superior to, certainly equivalent to treatment as usual and wait list controls. Finally, clinical expertise appears to be obviated by the report’s overly strong and narrow recommendation of CBT treatments and medication.”

I wrote it down to read because it is truly nerve-wracking to stand at the mic.

Several council members followed suit. However, there was strong support from the floor not to send this back to the drawing board as it would take another 5 years, and we would “lose” to psychiatry. Before we voted on the motion, the Practice Directorate promised to put out an accompanying document on professional psychology guidelines highlighting clinical expertise, in order to encourage psychologists treating patients with PTSD,  to 1) take cultural/diversity context into account, 2) properly contextualize PTSD interventions so that individual patients issues were attended to, 3) report some of the growing body of research from EMDR, Psychodynamics and emotion focused therapies, and 4) pay more attention to treatment delivery such and individual and group therapy. (Because I had carefully read the entire document I did note that there was a nod to “brief psychodynamic therapy” in the treatment of PTSD already, but there is nothing about group vs individual.) I look forward to these accompanying comments. The vote to accept the PTSD guidelines, along with this forthcoming document from the practice directorate, passed at almost 80%. (I have the 2,000 page document if you would like to read it—just email me at shb@byu.edu.) I voted against it as I think it needs to be re-written but I was clearly in the minority. I am also uncomfortable with the notion that these narrow guidelines were passed in what appears to be a turf war; but maybe I am unrealistic.

Here is what I think we should do next: Write a succinct document highlighting the efficacious and efficient use of groups as a delivery model for PTSD intervention and send this to Kathryn C. Nordal, email: knordal@apa.org. She strikes me as a smart, very competent person who will listen to us. Recently at the American Group Psychotherapy Association annual meeting in NYC I attended the Science-to-Service-Taskforce where we discussed this. Gary Burlingame agreed to send this information to Dr. Nordal at the APA Practice Directorate.  This is all good news for all of us in this division who understand the power of small group dynamics.

Other business of interest was a presentation on diversity on implicit attitudes (check out www.slido.com for interesting details about this North Star project presented by Glenda Russel and Andrea Iglesias.) Budget items were reviewed—sadly too many of our colleagues have dropped out of APA because of the bad publicity we have gotten from the Hoffman fallout. A proposed policy and procedures document on implementing transparency was discussed. Item 12, removal of barriers to admission to doctoral programs in psychology using the GRE was passed. Trial delegation of authority to the board of directors was discussed; this is all part of the Good Governance Project designed to make APA nimbler. Let’s hope it works. Until next time. Thanks for allowing me to represent you from Division 49. Sally H. Barlow

http://www.apa.org/about/governance/council/minutes-winter-2017.pdf

http://www.apa.org/about/governance/council/2017-apportionment.pdf

Categories
Committee Reports

Group Specialty Council

The petition to have Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy recognized as a specialty was submitted in December 2016, and the public comment period ended on March 10, 2017.  There were more than 140 comments submitted and all were positive.  While the majority of the comments were from individuals, several were from other groups such as the AGPA Science to Service Task Force, the American Board of Group Psychology, The Group Foundation for Advancing Mental Health, the Northeastern Society for Group Psychotherapy, the International Board for the Certification of Group Psychotherapists, AGPA, APA Division 49, APA Committee on Aging, APA Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, the Hawaiian Islands Group Psychotherapy Society, and Samaritan Health & Living Center.  We extend our thanks to all the individuals and groups that provided comments as this shows the level of interest the petition holds. CRSPPP will hold its meeting on        , and their response is expected 30 days after the meeting.  Members of The Society and Council will be notified immediately after the decision is communicated to us.

The Council was contacted by CoS in response to a request from CoA to develop specialty competencies for residents in post-doctoral psychology programs.  There are 16 areas where 2 – 3 advanced competencies are needed.  The Council is in the process of developing competencies and welcomes any ideas to facilitate that process.  Following are the 16 competency domains based upon ABPP competencies and inclusive of APA- CoA competencies:

Integration of science and practice ( note: an APA-CoA required competency)

  1. Ethical and Legal Standards/Policy
  2. Individual and Cultural Diversity
  3. Professionalism (professional values attitudes and behavior)
  4. Reflective practice/self-assessment, self-care
  5. Scientific knowledge and methods
  6. Interdisciplinary Systems
  7. Relationships
  8. Evidence-based Practice
  9. Assessment
  10. Intervention
  11. Consultation
  12. Research/Evaluation
  13. Supervision
  14. Teaching
  15. Management/ Administration
  16. Advocacy

The competency domains Integration of Science and Practice, Ethical and Legal Standards, and Individual and Cultural Diversity are required for all postdoctoral residencies regardless of specialty.

Nina Brown, Ed.D., LPC, NCC, FAGPA

 

 

 

 

 

 

President

Eleanor F. Counselman, Ed.D., ABPP, CGP, LFAGPA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secretary

Categories
Brief Articles

Running Psychoeducational Groups: Ideas for Early Career Psychologists

Sean Woodland, Ph.D.
Sean Woodland, Ph.D.

Recently, a colleague and fellow ECP asked me to help her solve a problem with one of her groups.  She is a psychological assistant in an intensive outpatient program for a local hospital.  She noticed that in her new Distress Tolerance class patients were quite disengaged with instruction, often preferring side conversation.  Relatively new to group treatments, my colleague was left confused and discouraged for future groups.  I am grateful that that through my experience teaching, researching, and associating with Division 49 I was able to set her aright.  In our exchange I was reminded of previous publications from Division 49 members (Brown, 2011; Burlingame & Woodland, 2013) regarding conducting psychoeducational groups (PEGs).  Drawing on their writings and on personal experience thus far, here are a few simple guidelines to follow for any ECP new to PEGs.

Set the Tone

As with any therapeutic encounter, it is important to be prepared.  In PEGs this means having a well-defined lesson plan.  This is manifest through study and preparation of the material, as well as clearly communicating group rules and norms once the class has begun.  This is especially vital in class-oriented groups in which enrollment is open-ended.  One rule of thumb that has worked for me is that if there is ever a new member in the class, it’s safe to assume they don’t know the rules and norms.  So, instead of assuming they will “figure it out,” make a habit of repeating the class rules, at the very least by leaving a space on the whiteboard to display them.

Another way in which the PEG therapist sets the tone is in setting up the room such that the environment promotes engagement in instruction.  In my colleague’s Distress Tolerance group, the pre-established norm was for group members to be seated along three walls of a large, rectangular multi-purpose room.  While this configuration allowed for all group members to see each other clearly, it also created a great deal of space between teacher and learner.  This space seemed to invite side conversation, and also put a strain on members trying to see across the entire room toward the whiteboard.  Some members also had to re-adjust in their chairs to properly see instruction.  The solution to this problem was simple and surprisingly effective: chairs were placed in two rows of semicircles around the instructor.  This moved the dead space in the room from between the teacher and learner to behind the entire class.  And more importantly, side conversation was nearly eliminated.

Focus on Emotional Learning

If you were to ask group members what they learned in their last group, chances are the majority would not be able to recite the principles that were taught, much less grasp the content in the way in which the therapist intended for them.  Rather, group members and class members alike retain what they are ready to learn.  And in most instances, this learning is tied to an emotion.  With this said, it is important that the PEG therapist not be committed to “getting through” all the lesson material.  They should, rather, reward active engagement with reflection, expounding productive comments, and setting a foothold for engaging other class members.  Focusing on emotional learning can also lead to the use of experiential activities, which if used properly can enhance understanding.

For example, I recently taught a PEG on ADHD.  As might be expected, “telling” about things like executive function was not as effective as having them experience it.  An activity we called “Sound Ball” was particularly effective.  In this activity, participants were asked to make nonsense sounds while passing a ball in a circle.  They were required to repeat the sound produced by the ball-thrower as they received the ball.  They were then required to make up a nonsense sound as they passed the ball to someone else.  For almost all patients this created a challenge in executive function, a fair share of awkward moments, and was a powerful teaching tool.  Class members readily reported that experiencing difficulties mentally shifting, processing, and storing information during the activity illustrated a type for these same challenges in their daily lives.

Following Up

In PEGs following up can be incredibly important.  For example, using homework assignments can help clients gain clear direction about the message the PEG therapist is trying to communicate.  If the PEG only constitutes one session, creating a memorable experience in which the therapist polls “takeaways” can be a useful tool.  This may also be effective for the final class in a multi-session PEG.  Either way, if the instructor has done their job, there was likely a small change wrought upon the patient.  The proper handling of that change can help clients retain important knowledge and skills, and will enhance learning of principles to guide their own lives.

Recently I employed the “takeaway” strategy in a pain management class.  I asked class members what (if anything) they would take with them after the class was over. One member expressed an excitement for instruction on mindfulness meditation, and stated that she would try mindfulness on a daily basis to help cope with her pain.  Conversely, another stated that mindfulness was not for her, but that she preferred coping with a hot bath and a good book.  While at first it may seem that the first class member “got it” while the other did not, both reactions to the instruction were valuable!  Both class members left with greater knowledge of how to cope with their condition: one found a new tool that works, and another confirmed to herself what didn’t.  As the instructor, I decided to reinforce both types of learning.  This not only validated the disparate experiences, but also silently validated the varied experiences of the other members of the class.


As with any therapeutic modality, in psychoeducational groups (PEGs) rests great potential for learning. This may be didactic or “academic” learning, and can also be practical or emotional.  When treated with this scope and with the proper preparation, PEGs have the potential to be transformed from the reading of slides to seeing change on and individual and group level.  And perhaps most of all, they can be enriching to the instructor.  As PEGs continue to gain favor in the therapeutic array, seeing them as fertile ground for therapeutic gain will transform them from classes into therapy that reflects the emotional and interpersonal learning for which group attendees will continue to yearn.

References

Brown, N. W. (2011). Psychoeducational groups: Process and practice. Taylor & Francis.

Burlingame, G. M., & Woodland, S. (2013). Conducting psychoeducational groups. In Koocher, G.  P. Norcross, J. C., & Greene, B. A. (Eds.) Psychologists’ desk reference, 3rd ed. (pp. 380-383). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

*Sean Woodland, PhD is a psychological assistant registered in the State of California, and works at Kaiser Permanente Stockton Medical Center.  The opinions expressed belong to Dr. Woodland, and may not reflect those of Kaiser Permanente.  For questions or concerns, Dr. Woodland may be reached by email at seanc.woodland@gmail.com, or by phone at 801-602-8278.

Categories
Brief Articles

Explaining Therapeutic Change in Residential Wilderness Therapy Groups

Lee Gillis, PhD
Lee Gillis, Ph.D.
Keith Russell, Ph.D.
Keith Russell, Ph.D.

Residential wilderness therapy or adventure therapy is “the prescriptive use of adventure experiences provided by mental health professionals, often conducted in natural settings that kinesthetically engage clients on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels.” (Gass, Gillis & Russell, 2012 p.1).  The term adventure therapy is used in the literature interchangeably with “wilderness therapy” (Russell, 2001) and “outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH)” (Russell & Hendee, 2000).  All these terms refer to treatment that takes place with small groups often in outdoor settings utilizing either short (1-5 days) forays into nature or extended expeditions (14-60 days) where participants are immersed in a wilderness setting. White’s (2015) history of the field points to an evolutionary tree for adventure therapy whose DNA includes therapeutic summer camps, Boy Scouts, Outward Bound, and even The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  The recorded history of this therapeutic intervention dates back to 1861.

How does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare look in practice?

Therapeutic outdoor experiences typically occur in small groups (4-8 clients). Most of the groups are “open” with clients entering and leaving as they go through intake or discharge; it is rare these days to have a cohort of clients who go through a whole program together.  Thus, the group climate can be in constant flux and how congruent a member’s perceptions are with the rest of the group has been found to have implications for treatment progress. At least that is the premise put forth in the Gillis, Kivlighan, & Russell (2016) manuscript in volume 53 of Psychotherapy.

Theoretically, the OBH group therapy that takes place has the members’ shared experience(s) of paddling, hiking, rock climbing, etc. on which to reflect and give feedback to one another.  Individuals set therapeutic intentions prior to an outing and project when they may have opportunities to engage in that intention.  For example, prior to a recent river crossing, one group member, based on his past history with the group, wanted to step up and take the lead with his peers as he had been sitting back and letting others take charge in previous activities.  He projected that once they arrive at the river would be his first opportunity to step forward.  Conversely, another group member stated his therapeutic intention was to stay quiet and listen to others as he had previously blurted out what he was thinking with little regard for what other group members wanted to do.  In each case the group members offered suggestions to clarify the intentions and question how they might see it realized.  The intentions are written down in the group room and then used as the basis for feedback in the group session following the experience.

Many of us who embrace this particular experiential approach find a strong foundation in principles of Gestalt Therapy, Psychodrama, and Carl Rogers’ Person Centered groups while grounding ourselves in evidence based cognitive behavioral approaches to treatment.  The conscious and intentional use of metaphor (Bacon, 1983; Gass, 1991), influenced by Milton Erickson’s work, is also prominent among many adventure therapists.  For example, the river crossing mentioned above provides numerous therapeutic metaphors to discuss in a group session whether they be being mindful of how one steps forward in life when the footing is unsteady or simply the challenges of getting from one place to another (one side of the river to the other).

Making sense of the adventure therapy group climate black box

The metaphor of a “black box” (Ashby, 1956) is often used when trying to make inferences about how change takes place within a program when examining only inputs (pretests) and outputs (posttests). Positive pre to post treatment changes in client progress as measured by the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ 45.2) (Lambert & Finch, 1999) and Youth Outcome Questionnaire 2.0 SR (YOQ 2.0 SR) (Bulingame, et al 1996) during adventure therapy experiences for adolescents and young adults has been well documented (c.f., Bettmann et al., 2016, Gillis, et al. 2016, Norton et al, 2014). Meta-analyses have consistently demonstrated moderate (d = 0.45) effect sizes for adventure therapy (c.f., Bowen, Neill & Crisp, 2016; Cason & Gillis, 1994).

Russell, Gillis, & Heppner (2016) recently found that changes in the non-reactive factor of trait mindfulness (Baer, et al., 2008) helped explain OQ 45.2 change in young adults being treated for substance use disorder in an OBH program despite the program studied not having formal mindfulness training.  The authors posited adventure therapy as a mindfulness-based experience (MBE) especially when involved in reflecting on their excursions into the wilderness with explicitly stated therapeutic goals to achieve while out on trail.

The global changes in the non-reactive mindfulness factor among clients does not examine how engagement in the group experience influences outcome.  That was the purpose of the Gillis et al. (2016) manuscript in volume 53 of Psychotherapy. We examined how other member and person context moderate the relationship between group members’ perceptions of engagement and their treatment outcome using the actor partner interdependence model (APIM).

When the other group members generally see the group climate as engaged, higher general perceptions of engagement for the member are related to fewer depression and anxiety symptoms, clarity of social roles and interpersonal relationships.

When the other group members generally see the climate as not engaged, higher general perceptions of engagement for the member are related to more problems.

When the group member generally sees the climate as engaged, higher member biweekly perceptions of engagement related to fewer problems during that 2-week period.

When the member generally sees the climate as not engaged, higher biweekly perceptions of engagement for the member are unrelated to changes in problems.

Summary and Conclusions

In essence, this research is highlighting the role that congruence in member, group, and leader perceptions play in effectuating treatment outcome. When these perceptions become misaligned, individual client well-being can be affected, which in turn could create a cascading effect, leading to isolation and withdrawal from the group, thus affecting overall group engagement.  Monitoring these perceptions of engagement in conjunction with progress monitoring is warranted.  Practical implications for group therapists are to routinely monitor how group members view the group climate.

In this article we used the five item engagement subscale of MacKenzie’s (1983) Group Climate Questionnaire. We have recently switched to the Group Questionnaire available at oqmeasures.com in an attempt to examine how the three factor structure (positive bonding, positive working, and negative relationship) might provide more information to both therapist and to group members when used in progress monitoring. We will continue to examine the effects that bonding and working relationships has on treatment outcome both in the moment and during the weeks prior to group and community meetings because of our preliminary findings.

Finally, as authors, we are deeply indebted to Dr. Dennis Kivlighan for the APIM analysis and mentorship with the statistics!

References

Ashby, W. R. (1956). An introduction to cybernetics. An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman & Hall Ltd

Bacon, S. B. (1983). The conscious use of metaphor in Outward Bound. Denver, CO: Colorado Outward Bound School

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., Walsh, E., Duggan, D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in meditating and no meditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329-342.

Bettmann, J. E., Gillis, H. L., Speelman, E. A., Parry, K. J., & Case, J. M. (2016). A meta-analysis of wilderness therapy outcomes for private pay clients. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1-15.

Bowen, D. J., Neill, J. T., & Crisp, S. J. (2016). Wilderness adventure therapy effects on the mental health of youth participants. Evaluation and Program Planning, 58, 49-49.

Burlingame, G. M., Wells, M. G., Hoag, M. J., Hope, C. A., Nebeker, R. S., Konkel, K., McCollam, P., & Reisenger, C.W. (1996). Manual for youth outcome questionnaire (Y-OQ). Stevenson, MD: American Professional Credentialing Services.

Cason, D. & Gillis, H.L. (1994). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education17(1), 40-47.

Gass, M. A., Gillis, H. L., & Russell, K. C. (2012). Adventure therapy: Theory, practice, & research. NY: Routledge Publishing Company

Gass, M. A. (1991). Enhancing metaphor development in adventure therapy programs. Journal of Experiential Education14(2), 6-13.

Gillis Jr, H. L., Speelman, E., Linville, N., Bailey, E., Kalle, A., Oglesbee, N.,Sandlin, J., Thompson, L., & Jensen, J. (2016). Meta-analysis of treatment outcomes measured by the Y-OQ and Y-OQ-SR comparing wilderness and non-wilderness treatment programs. Child & Youth Care Forum, 45, 851-863

Gillis, H. L. (L.), Jr., Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., & Russell, K. C. (2016). Between-client and within-client engagement and outcome in a residential wilderness treatment group: An actor partner interdependence analysis. Psychotherapy, 53(4), 413-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pst0000047

Lambert, M. J., & Finch, A. E. (1999). The Outcome Questionnaire. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (2nd ed.) (pp. 831-869). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

MacKenzie, K. R. (1983). The clinical application of a group climate measure. In R. R. Dies & K. R. MacKenzie (Eds.), Advances in group psychotherapy: Integrating research and practice (pp. 159–170). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

Norton, C. L., Tucker, A., Russell, K. C., Bettmann, J. E., Gass, M. A., Gillis, H. L., & Behrens, E. (2014). Adventure therapy with youth. Journal of Experiential Education37(1), 46-59.

Russell, Keith C. (2001). What is wilderness therapy? Journal of Experiential Education, 24(2) 70-79.

Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Heppner, W. (2016). An examination of mindfulness-based experiences through adventure in substance use disorder treatment for young adult males: A pilot study. Mindfulness, 7(2), 320-328.

Russell, K. C., & Hendee, J. C. (2000). Outdoor behavioral healthcare: Definitions, common practice, expected outcomes, and a nationwide survey of programs. Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station.

White, W. (2015). Stories from the field: A history of wilderness therapy.  Wilderness Publishers.

*This article was first published in The Society for the Advancement of Psychotherapy February 26, 2017.  Gillis, H. L., & Russell, K. C. (2017, February). Explaining therapeutic change in residential wilderness therapy groups. [Web article]. Retrieved from: http://www.societyforpsychotherapy.org/explaining-therapeutic-change-in-residential-wilderness-therapy-groups